The “art” of surgery.
As surgeons, we each have have years of training and experience plus an enormous body of scientific and clinical information at our fingertips. There is so much information, that the correct way to apply it is open to interpretation. This is where the “art” comes in. Here, I would like to discuss my opinion regarding the use of silver nitrate, as applied to pilonidal wounds after surgery, or in place of surgery to get pits and openings to close.
Silver nitrate is a chemical that chemically burns tissues. It usually comes on a wooden applicator stick, and when applied to exposed tissues, causes a chemical cauterization (burning) of the wound.
Surgeons do this when they have no idea why something is not healing. This is the surgical equivalent of “turning-it -off and back-on-again”. (We do this with our electronics when we don’t know how to fix something, but hope that a reboot will do the trick.)
In this instance, surgeons are blaming the lack of wound closure on “hyper-granulation tissue”. This occurs when there is visible, good, healing tissue inside the wound, but the skin isn’t closing over it. There are times in surgery when this makes sense and is a reasonable strategy – but NEVER with pilonidal wounds. The hope is that burning away the tissue, will give the wound a fresh start at healing – but without understanding why it wasn’t healing in the first place!
The reasons that this is not a good strategy are:
- It is painful.
- It takes time away from doing the correct thing to fix the problem (surgeons can keep applying silver nitrate for MONTHS before they give up on it as a therapy).
- The reason for lack of healing of pilonidal wounds is NEVER because of hyper-granulation tissue. (More here on the reasons why pilonidal wounds won’t heal.)
The correct solution is to:
- Perform corrective surgery to adjust the location of the incision, (which in my preference is a cleft-lift).
- Make sure the area is being kept clean and dry.
- Keep gauze tucked in any folds with open wounds, to allow air circulation.
- Consider GENTLE, topical medications that promote healing and/or control specific bacteria.
- Maximize protein intake, and consider the vitamins and supplements I’ve recommended.
I believe that many patients have proper care delayed, are traumatized, and may even have small wounds enlarged buy the use of silver nitrate.
The pros and cons of wound V.A.C.’s
A suction device used to help heal a wound has several names: Wound V.A.C, VAC, “vacuum assisted wound closure” or “negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)”. Sometimes they are referred to based on the specific brand of the machine, like a “Pico” or “VERAFLO”. VAC stands for” Vacuum Assisted Closure”. It consists of foam placed over an open wound, that is sealed with adhesive plastic, and connected to a machine that applies suction and removes fluid.
Note: this is not the same as a “closed suction drain”, also called a JP Drain, Jackson Pratt Drain, or Blake Drain. These are tubes that go INSIDE closed wounds to remove fluid.
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is very helpful in getting wounds to heal faster and minimize daily dressing changes. The VAC has to be changed periodically, but less frequently than usual open wound care.
But, is it a good solution for pilonidal wounds?
I suppose it depends on how you look at the situation. There are quite a few negatives (no pun intended) attributed to the use of the wound VAC for pilonidal wounds:
- It is an extremely awkward location to have a wound VAC, and it is hard to keep it well secured in place, especially with wounds next to the anus.
- It has to be changed frequently, the materials are expensive, and it has to be changed by a wound care professional, either in their clinic, or by a home-care visit.
- It is noisy, smelly, and embarrassing; and the VAC changes can be painful.
- It may have to be in place for months at at time.
- Even if it helps a wound to heal, it provided no guarantee that it will stay healed once the VAC is removed. The placement of a VAC is an extremely abnormal situation which does not replicate the environment and anatomy that will exist when it is removed. Frequently, when it is removed, the wounds open up again. Note: This is true for gluteal crease wounds, not wounds elsewhere on the body.
Although philosophically one could look at the use of a VAC in this situation as a difficult therapy that is trying to make the best of a bad situation, I don’t agree with that analysis. I think the smarter choice is to see a pilonidal expert and have surgery to close the wound. This short-cuts the whole situation, and usually turns this into a full recovery in about six weeks with a very low chance of recurrence. (I have not used a VAC on any of my patients in 27 years of pilonidal surgery.)
FURTHER SURGERY may seem like an illogical way of dealing with an open wound, that occurred BECAUSE of surgery, but if done properly it works. It is also appropriate with failed flap procedures, including previous failed cleft-lifts. If your current surgeon says that the wound can’t be closed – get another opinion. It may just mean that he or she does not know how to close it. There is almost always a faster and easier solution.
Contact us if you need help!
Dealing with failed operations
Often patients ask me why their previous surgery won’t heal. Or, why it heals but then reopens.
Surgeons often blame this on:
- the patient’s hygiene
- quality of wound care
- general health (“you just don’t heal well!”)
- that they have mysteriously developed a new “cyst”
- or “it was so extensive, we just couldn’t get all the cysts and tracts with the last operation”
- there is too much hair, and hair removal needs to be more diligent
- too much activity made the wound come apart
However, the actual reason for non-healing is usually the same in almost all cases:
- the cleft was not completely flattened
- the incision is in, or crosses, the midline
Of course, if a patient had a huge excision that was left open (or fell apart after closure) it will take a while to heal, and the size does matter. But, there should be good, steady progress. If it is taking many months, the wound actually gets larger, or the wound seems to heal – but then reopens, the cause has to do with the two reasons above.
When a patient gets to the point where it seems that it is just not healing, the original surgeon may suggest another excision! In general, this is the wrong approach, and just brings you back to square one. The best approach is one that will flatten the cleft and move the incision off the midline. My personal preference is the cleft-lift, which has been engineered to do exactly that. There are other flap procedures that may or may not work, depending on the expertise and experience of the surgeon performing the flap, but the cleft-lift is cosmetically the most appealing.
At our clinic we specialize in correcting the anatomy so that these wounds heal quickly. If you have been dealing with an open wound for more than two months without progress, contact us. We’re glad to help!